Wakefulness is an increased ability to stay conscious without feeling sleepy combined with a decreased need to sleep. [1] It is contrasted with stimulation in that it does not directly increase one's energy levels above a normal baseline but instead produces feelings of a wakeful, well-rested, and alert state. [2] [3] If one is sleepy before using this substance, the impulse to sleep will fade, keeping one’s eyes open will become easier, and the cognitive fog of exhaustion will be reduced. [4] However, sufficiently accumulated sleep deficiency can overpower or negate this effect in extreme cases. [2]

Wakefulness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as stimulants, nootropics, and psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as eugeroics or wakefulness-promoting agents. These include modafinil [2] [3] [5] [6] and armodafinil [2] .


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    Engber, T. M., Dennis, S. A., Jones, B. E., Miller, M. S., & Contreras, P. C. (1998). Brain regional substrates for the actions of the novel wake-promoting agent modafinil in the rat: comparison with amphetamine. Neuroscience, 87(4), 905-911. | https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00015-3
  4. Caldwell, J. A., Caldwell, J. L., Smyth, N. K., & Hall, K. K. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study. Psychopharmacology, 150(3), 272-282. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10923755
  5. Myrick, H., Malcolm, R., Taylor, B., & LaRowe, S. (2004). Modafinil: preclinical, clinical, and post-marketing surveillance—a review of abuse liability issues. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 16(2), 101-109. | https://doi.org/10.1080/10401230490453743
  6. Scammell, T. E., Estabrooke, I. V., McCarthy, M. T., Chemelli, R. M., Yanagisawa, M., Miller, M. S., & Saper, C. B. (2000). Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(22), 8620-8628. | https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-22-08620.2000




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