Appetite suppression

Appetite suppression can be described as the experience of a distinct decrease in a person's sense of hunger and appetite in a manner which can result in both a lesser desire to eat food and a decreased enjoyment of its taste. [1] [2] This typically results in the person undergoing prolonged periods of time without eating food.

Depending on the intensity, this effect can result in a sense of complete disinterest or even disgust concerning food. At times, it can often result in physical discomfort (such as Nausea) when attempting to eat food. In cases of severe appetite suppression, it is often easier for a person to consume liquid food, such as protein shakes, in order to receive the nutrition needed to function.

Appetite suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation or pain relief in a manner which can lead to feeling as if one either has enough energy to not need food or has enough anaesthesia to not feel the pain of hunger. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant [3] compounds, such as amphetamine [4] , methylphenidate, [5] nicotine, [6] MDMA, [7] and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as opioids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is worth noting that if these substances are used for prolonged periods of time, weight loss often occurs as a result.


  1. Silverstone, T. (1992). Appetite suppressants. Drugs, 43(6), 820-836. |
  2. Bray, G. A. (1993). Use and abuse of appetite-suppressant drugs in the treatment of obesity. Annals of internal medicine, 119(7_Part_2), 707-713. |
  3. Poulton, A. S., Hibbert, E. J., Champion, B. L., & Nanan, R. K. (2016). Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite. Frontiers in pharmacology, 7, 105. |
  4. Hsieh, Y. S., Yang, S. F., & Kuo, D. Y. (2005). Amphetamine, an appetite suppressant, decreases neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamic paraventriculum. Regulatory peptides, 127(1-3), 169-176. |
  5. Davis, C., Fattore, L., Kaplan, A. S., Carter, J. C., Levitan, R. D., & Kennedy, J. L. (2012). The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 15(2), 181-187. |
  6. Seeley, R. J., & Sandoval, D. A. (2011). Neuroscience: weight loss through smoking. Nature, 475(7355), 176. |
  7. Francis, H. M., Kraushaar, N. J., Hunt, L. R., & Cornish, J. L. (2011). Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens are specifically involved in the appetite suppressant and not locomotor stimulant effects of MDMA (‘ecstasy’). Psychopharmacology, 213(2-3), 355-363. |




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