Psychosis is as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality." [1] [2] The features of psychoticism are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and formal thought disorders exhibiting a wide range of culturally incongruent, odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviours and cognitions, including both process (e.g., perception, dissociation) and content (e.g., beliefs). [3] Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. [4] [5] [6] Generally speaking, however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy. The most common of these signs and symptoms of psychosis are listed as separate subcomponents below:

Psychosis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as deliriants, [7] [8] psychedelics, [9] dissociatives, [1] [1] and cannabinoids [1] [1] . However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulants, [1] [1] particularly during the comedown or as a result of prolonged binges. It may also manifest from abrupt discontinuation of long-term or heavy usage of certain drugs such as benzodiazepines [1] or alcohol [1] ; this is known as delirium tremens (DTs). Aside from substance abuse, it may also occur as a result of sleep deprivation, [1] emotional trauma, urinary tract infections, and various other medical conditions.


  1. What is Psychosis? (National Institute of Mental health) |
  2. Kapur, S. (2003). Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. American journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 13-23. |
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.), 827-8. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. |
  4. American Psychiatric Association, 1994 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Revision IV (DSM-IV) |
  5. Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard; Geddes, John (2005). Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-852863-0. |
  6. "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge (Timeline)". Scientific American Mind |
  7. Jones, J., Dougherty, J., & Cannon, L. (1986). Diphenhydramine-induced toxic psychosis. The American journal of emergency medicine, 4(4), 369-371. |
  8. Hall, R. C., Popkin, M. K., & McHenry, L. E. (1977). Angel’s Trumpet psychosis: a central nervous system anticholinergic syndrome. Am J Psychiatry, 134(3), 312-314. |
  9. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. J Nerv Ment Dis, 172(10), 577-595. |
  10. Luisada, P. V. (1978). The phencyclidine psychosis: phenomenology and treatment. NIDA Res Monogr, 21(21), 241-253. |
  11. Lahti, A. C., Holcomb, H. H., Medoff, D. R., & Tamminga, C. A. (1995). Ketamine activates psychosis and alters limbic blood flow in schizophrenia. Neuroreport, 6(6), 869-872. |
  12. Hall, W., & Degenhardt, L. (2000). Cannabis use and psychosis: a review of clinical and epidemiological evidence. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34(1), 26-34. |
  13. Hurst, D., Loeffler, G., & McLay, R. (2011). Psychosis associated with synthetic cannabinoid agonists: a case series. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(10), 1119-1119. |
  14. Glasner-Edwards, S., & Mooney, L. J. (2014). Methamphetamine psychosis: epidemiology and management. CNS drugs, 28(12), 1115-1126. |
  15. Bramness, J. G., Gundersen, Ø. H., Guterstam, J., Rognli, E. B., Konstenius, M., Løberg, E. M., ... & Franck, J. (2012). Amphetamine-induced psychosis-a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the vulnerable?. BMC psychiatry, 12(1), 221. |
  16. Preskorn, S. H., & Denner, L. J. (1977). Benzodiazepines and withdrawal psychosis: report of three cases. Jama, 237(1), 36-38. |
  17. Kathmann, N., Soyka, M., Bickel, R., & Engel, R. R. (1996). ERP changes in alcoholics with and without alcohol psychosis. Biological psychiatry, 39(10), 873-881. |
  18. Coren, S. (1998). Sleep deprivation, psychosis and mental efficiency. Psychiatric Times, 15(3), 1-3. |


psychological state


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