Subjective Effects of Deliriants
Deliriants are a class of hallucinogen that are unique in that they offer solid hallucinations which display themselves seamlessly into waking consciousness, similar to fully formed dreams. These hallucinations are also characterised by delusions and psychosis as they are most often immediately accepted as reality by the person experiencing them. In contrast, classical psychedelics and dissociatives have progressive levels of multiple all-encompassing sensory effects before reaching the level of concrete hallucination. They also rarely induce psychosis, with most people maintaining an understanding that they are simply under the influence of a substance throughout any hallucinations which they undergo.
Outside of these delirious external hallucinations, deliriant trips are primarily characterised by incredibly uncomfortable and often dangerous physical side effects alongside deep feelings of fear, anxiety, and confusion. It is because of this that deliriant substances hold no therapeutic or recreational potential and are instead merely curiosities that should not be experimented with by any but the most experienced of psychonauts.
This article breaks down the subjective effects of the deliriant experience into simple and easy to understand descriptions with accompanying image replications. This is done without resorting to metaphor, analogy, or personal trip reports.
These descriptions are not specific to any particular substance but are applicable to the effects which commonly occur in various forms under the influence of almost any deliriant compound. This includes, but is not limited to, both synthetic and plant based deliriants, such as:
diphenhydramine (DPH), datura, atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, doxylamine, benzydamine, elemicin, brugmansia, atropa belladonna, hyoscyamus niger, mandragora officinarum
Individual effects are also summarized with a prominent link to their full article.
Visual effects are any subjective experience which directly alters a person's sense of sight.
An autonomous entity is the experience of perceived contact with beings that appear to be sentient and autonomous in their behaviour. They will frequently act as the inhabitants of a perceived independent reality. Although many entities seem largely unaware of a person’s presence, they are often precognizant of a person's appearance into their realm and usually choose to interact with them in various ways. The behaviour of a typical entity can vary wildly and seems to depend heavily on one's current emotional state. For example, while many entities will act as loving beings, teachers, or healers in certain contexts, they are equally capable of acting as indifferent, uncaring or even malicious tormentors.
Entities under the influence of psychedelics usually appear as if they are comprised of condensed psychedelic geometry. They can take any form, but certain archetypes are present and commonly include:
Humans, shadow people, bodiless super intelligent humanoids, aliens, elves, animals, giant spheres, insectoids, beings of light, anthropomorphic beings, plants, conscious inanimate objects, fictional characters, cartoons, robotic machines, gods, demigods, goddesses, bio-mechanical intelligences, hooded figures, demons, indescribable monstrosities, spirits, angels, shamans, ghosts, souls, ancestors, fantastical or mythological beasts, glitch creatures and more.
This experience is often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as geometry, internal hallucinations, and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.
Brightness alteration is a distortion or change in the intensity of perceived brightness comprising a person's vision. This usually results in the person's vision becoming dimmer or darker, but could also potentially result in it becoming lighter and more vivid depending on the person's environment and substances they have consumed.
Brightness alteration can be accompanied by the coinciding effects of pupil dilation or constriction and photophobia. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.
An external hallucination is the perception of a visual hallucination that displays itself seamlessly into the external environment as if it were physically present. This is in stark contrast to internal hallucinations, such as dreams, that occur exclusively within an imagined environment and can typically only be viewed with closed eyes.
At lower levels, external hallucinations are visible within one's direct line of sight, but are not fully defined in their appearance. This means that, although visible, they do not look completely detailed and are often extremely blurry or semi-translucent with little to no colour. However, at higher levels, the hallucinations become completely realistic and will rarely disappear due to a double take. At this point, they are now capable of a completely convincing and photorealistic appearance and their behaviour becomes far more lifelike. Additionally, they may become numerous enough to fully engulf the entirety of the person's environment.
The content within these external hallucinations can be further broken down into four distinct subcomponents. These commonly include autonomous entities, object activation, scenarios and plots, and settings, and shadow people.
It is worth noting that the content, style, and general behaviour of an external hallucination is often largely dependent on the emotional state of the person experiencing it. For example, a person who is emotionally stable and generally happy will usually be more prone to experiencing neutral, interesting, or positive hallucinations. In contrast, a person who is emotionally unstable and generally unhappy will usually be more prone to experiencing sinister, fear-inducing, and negative hallucinations.
External hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as delirium, internal hallucinations, and delusions. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine.
Object activation is the experience of looking at an object and perceiving it to move, become alive, or become fully animated and autonomous of its own accord. For example, a door may open and close on its own or a cup on the table may start to slide or tilt over. The "activated object" usually moves in a familiar way that would happen in day to day life, implying that the person is experiencing a combination of both object alterations and external hallucinations being applied to their environment.
However, certain activated objects may also perform actions that are completely unrealistic. For example, an item of furniture may appear to disassemble into many complex, floating, and rotating sections before reassembling into its previous form. Stationary objects, such as rugs, may activate themselves and begin crawling on the floor and up onto other stationary pieces of furniture. These hallucinations usually only occur when one looks directly at an object for an extended period of time and are rare and extreme signs of an advanced hallucinatory state.
Object activation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as delirium, psychosis, cognitive dysphoria, and delusions in a manner that can result in the hallucinations being perceived to have distinctly sinister and unsettling undertones. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of psychedelics, dissociatives, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation.
An object alteration is the experience of perceiving objects and scenes to be progressively warping, moving, stretching, animating, and shifting in their 3-dimensional form. When the person double takes, the object returns to its original shape until it is looked at directly once again, whereafter it begins distorting again in a similar or different manner. The manner in which the alterations occur is not uniform and cannot be reliably predicted. The intensity of the effect is often linked to the intensity and progression of the mental state that precludes this effect.
For example, when staring at an object, such as a chair, its 3-dimensional shape may begin to drastically elongate or tilt into an exaggerated form while retaining its original colours and textures.
Another common manifestation of this effect is the perception of textures progressively extending and stretching outward from surfaces of objects in the form of a detailed 3-dimensional structure somewhat similar to complex, opaque, and solidified smoke. These structures usually maintain a size consistent with the width of the texture it is extending from. They can also range from anywhere between several inches to several meters in length. For example, if one is staring at a painting on the wall, it may extend in one direction on a 2-dimensional plane until the observer looks away.
Object alterations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as delirium and psychosis. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH and datura. However, they can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.
Peripheral information misinterpretation
Peripheral information misinterpretation is a fleeting experience of an object or detail within one's peripheral vision being interpreted and displayed incorrectly. During this state, a person may briefly see elaborate details within their peripheral vision that, after a more direct analysis, turn out to be entirely fabricated. For example, a person may momentarily notice fleeting objects, people, or events within their peripheral vision that are not actually present. Once the detail or object is realized to be incorrect, the misinterpretation is overwritten with the correct perception.
Peripheral information misinterpretation is often accompanied and enhanced by other coinciding effects, such as pattern recognition enhancement and external hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.
Settings, sceneries, and landscapes
Shadow people describes the experience of perceiving patches of shadow in one's peripheral or direct line of sight to appear and behave as living, autonomous beings. Due to the unique behaviour of these hallucinations, they can be considered as a distinct subtype of autonomous entities.
Shadow people usually appear initially as fleeting images in a person's peripheral vision. However, at higher levels of intensity, shadow people may appear in full view. This allows the user to directly look at one in their central line of sight. At higher levels of intensity, it becomes possible to look away from and back to a shadow person without a change in the presence or appearance of the hallucination.
The bodies of shadow people are usually perceived as being comprised of blackness that has a sense of depth and few facial or body features. The blackness of their bodies often seem almost opaque, as if one is looking into a "black hole" in humanoid form. They may also appear in the shape of animals, uniform blobs, disembodied body parts, or a myriad of other indescribable shapes. They sometimes appear to have faces, eyes, or mouths and are able to move or change shape. The movement exhibited can be normal human movement or it can be faster, slower, or choppier than a normal person's gait. It is also possible for multiple shadow people to occupy one's field of vision simultaneously while acting autonomously from one another, sometimes even interacting with each other.
Shadow people are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as delirium, paranoia, anxiety, and feelings of impending doom. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis, sleep deprivation, and during sleep paralysis.
- Autonomous entities of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature - This can include demons, deformed monstrosities, hooded figures, mocking entities and otherwise normal human beings deformed by severe injury or illness.
- Scenarios and plots of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature- This can include scenes of suffering directed towards oneself or other people, such as being tortured, scenes in which one is being hunted as prey by "evil" creatures or forces, and the direct experience of one's personal fears.
- Settings, sceneries, and landscapes of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature - This can include the visitation of hellish landscapes, ancient monolithic Lovecraftian architecture, and ruined civilizations.
- Fearing for the fabric of one's sanity** - This can be described as feeling as if one's current perception is so horrific that they will surely be left permanently insane with severe psychological damage. The effect can leave people with an immediate sense that ordinary life is a thin shell over a comparatively horrifying reality, one which cannot be dismissed or escaped from. Despite these hallucinations being extremely stressful, this effect rarely leaves individuals with lasting psychological problems.
Visual haze distorts the surrounding environment to make it appear as if the air is shrouded in an imaginary cloud of smoke, fog, or haze. This effect varies in its intensity, ranging from subtle and barely visible to extreme and all-encompassing in a manner that can significantly impair a person's vision.
Visual haze is often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as acuity suppression and external hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur less commonly under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.
Auditory effects are any subjective effect which directly alters a person's sense of hearing.
An auditory distortion is the experience of perceived alterations in how audible noises present and structure themselves.
These distortions can manifest in many styles, but commonly take the form of echoes or murmurs that arise from sounds and are accompanied by fluctuating changes in speed and pitch. This can intensify to the point where sounds are consistently followed by continuous reverberation, often rendering the original sound completely unrecognizable. However, it often quickly resets to base level and starts over if the source of noise is stopped or changed.
At lower levels, auditory distortions consist of subtle and spontaneous reverberations, echoes, and changes in the pitch of noises within the external environment. They are fleeting, low in intensity, and easy to ignore. However, at higher levels, auditory distortions become consistent and intense enough that they are impossible to ignore. The complexity of these resulting alterations can quickly render the original sound as unintelligible.
Auditory distortions are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as auditory hallucinations, auditory suppression, and auditory enhancement. They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, 5-MeO-DiPT, and DMT. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of dissociatives, such as ketamine, PCP, and nitrous.
An auditory hallucination is the experience of hearing spontaneous and imaginary noises. The most common examples of this include hearing clips of sound such as imagined music, voices, tones, popping, and scraping, but can also be an infinite variety of other potential noises that are stored within one's memory.
In terms of their behavior, these sounds will often be based on noises that were expected to occur or have been genuinely heard on a frequent basis within the external environment. For example, a person may repeatedly hear a knock at the door when they are expecting a visitor or hear music they were listening to earlier on in the day. However, at other times, auditory hallucinations may also present themselves as completely new or unusual sounds unlike anything that could currently occur within the external environment.
Auditory hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as auditory distortion and auditory enhancement. They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives.
Auditory suppression is the experience of sound becoming perceived as more distant, quiet, and muffled than they actually are. This effect can significantly decrease both the volume of a noise, as well as its perceived quality. It is usually described as making it difficult to comprehend or fully pay attention to music and other sounds.
Auditory suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as auditory distortions and auditory hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur less commonly under the influence of GABAergic depressants and antipsychotics such as alcohol and quetiapine.
Tactile effects are any subjective effect which directly alters a person's sense of touch.
A tactile hallucination is the experience of perceiving a convincing physical sensation that is not actually occurring. Common examples of this can include people or insects touching the body in various places and in a wide variety of ways. Alternatively, these hallucinations can be felt as complex and structured arrangements of vibration across the skin.
This effect may be also accompanied by visual hallucinations of a plausible cause related to the sensation. For example, during internal and external hallucinations, one may be able to touch and feel imagined objects or autonmous entities just as convincingly as within normal everyday dreams. The sensations that are possible within these hallucinations are near limitless and can even include pain or sexual pleasure.
Tactile hallucinations are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriants compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of psychedelics, stimulant psychosis, and extreme sleep deprivation.
Multisensory effects are any subjective effect which directly alters two or more senses simultaneously.
Although some hallucinatory effects may affect multiple senses at one time they are usually not categorized as 'multisensory effects' unless they do so consistently. For example, while experiences with autonomous entities may sometimes have a tactile component to them, more often than not they are primarily a visual experience and are therefore classified as such.
Memory replays are a multisensory subtype of internal hallucinations that result in a person reliving memories through the experience of vivid daydreams, reoccurring emotions or sensations, and hallucinations. At higher levels of intensity, these are often referred to as "flashbacks". The memories themselves can be significant life events with high levels of personal meaning attributed to them, generic recent occurrences, or long forgotten experiences from childhood.
Memory replays are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as scenarios and plots, internal hallucinations, and introspection. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, they can also commonly occur during sobriety as a result of traumatic experiences, particularly when the person suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder.
Cognitive effects are any subjective experience which directly alter or introduce new content to an element of a person's cognition.
Amnesia is a global impairment in the ability to acquire new memories regardless of sensory modality, and a loss of some memories, especially recent ones, from the period before amnesia began. During states of amnesia a person will usually retain functional perceptual abilities and short-term memory which can still be used to recall events that recently occurred; this effect is distinct from the memory impairment produced by sedation. As such, a person experiencing amnesia may not obviously appear to be doing so, as they can often carry on normal conversations and perform complex tasks.
Amnesia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as disinhibition, sedation, and memory suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of GABAergic depressants, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, GHB, and zolpidem. However, it can also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of extremely heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, Salvia divinorum, and deliriants.
Anxiety is medically recognized as the experience of negative feelings of apprehension, worry, and general unease. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks or feelings of impending doom. Anxiety is often accompanied by nervous behaviour, such as restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and muscular tension.
Psychoactive substance-induced anxiety can be caused as an inescapable effect of the drug itself, by a lack of experience with the substance or its intensity, as an enhancement of a pre-existing state of mind, or by the experience of negative hallucinations.
Anxiety is often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as depression and irritability. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.
Autonomous voice communication
Autonomous voice communication (also known as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs)) is the experience of being able to hear and converse with a disembodied and audible voice of unknown origin which seemingly resides within one's own head. This voice is often capable of high levels of complex and detailed speech which are typically on par with the intelligence and vocabulary of ones own conversational abilities.
At higher levels, the conversational style of that which is discussed between both the voice and its host can be described as essentially identical in terms of its coherency and linguistic intelligibility as that of any other everyday interaction between the self and another human being with which one might engage in conversation with.
At higher levels, the conversational style of that which is discussed between both the voice and its host can be described as essentially identical in terms of its coherency and linguistic intelligibility as that of any other everyday interaction between the self and another human being of any age with which one might engage in conversation with. Higher levels may also manifest itself in multiple voices or even an ambiguous collection of voices such as a crowd.
However, there are some subtle but identifiable differences between this experience and that of normal everyday conversations. These stem from the fact that one's specific set of knowledge, memories and experiences are identical to that of the voice which is being communicated with. This results in conversations in which both participants often share an identical vocabulary down to the very use of their colloquial slang and subtle mannerisms. As a result of this, no matter how in-depth and detailed the discussion becomes, no entirely new information is ever exchanged between the two communicators. Instead, the discussion focuses primarily on building upon old ideas and discussing new opinions or perspectives regarding the previously established content of one's life.
Autonomous voice communication is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delusions, autonomous entities, auditory hallucinations, and psychosis in a manner which can sometimes lead the person into believing the voices' statements unquestionably in a delusional manner. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it may also occur during the offset of prolonged stimulant binges and less consistently under the influence of heavy dosages of cannabinoids.
Cognitive dysphoria (semantically the opposite of euphoria) is medically recognized as a cognitive and emotional state in which a person experiences intense feelings of dissatisfaction, and in some cases indifference to the world around them. These feelings can vary in their intensity depending on the dosage consumed and the user's susceptibility to mental instability. Although dysphoria is an effect, the term is also used colloquially to define a state of general melancholic unhappiness (such as that of mild depression) often combined with an overwhelming sense of discomfort and malaise.
Cognitive dysphoria is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and depression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH and datura. However, it can also occur during a stimulant offset and during the withdrawal symptoms of almost any substance.
Delirium (also known as acute confusion) is medically recognized as a physiological disturbance of awareness that is accompanied by a change in baseline cognition which cannot be better explained by a preexisting or evolving neurocognitive disorder. The disturbance in awareness is manifested by a reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain, and shift attention and the accompanying cognitive change in at least one other area may include memory and learning (particularly recent memory), disorientation (particularly to time and place), alteration in language, or perceptual distortions or a perceptual-motor disturbance. The perceptual disturbances accompanying delirium include misinterpretations, illusions, or hallucinations; these disturbances are typically visual but may occur in other modalities as well, and range from simple and uniform to highly complex. An individual with delirium may also exhibit emotional disturbances, such as anxiety, fear, depression, irritability, anger, euphoria, and apathy with rapid and unpredictable shifts from one emotional state to another.
Delirium may present itself in three distinct forms. These are referred to in the scientific literature as hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed forms. In its hyperactive form, it is manifested as severe confusion and disorientation, with a sudden onset and a fluctuating intensity. In its hypoactive (i.e. underactive) form, it is manifested by an equally sudden withdrawal from interaction with the outside world accompanied by symptoms such as drowsiness and general inactivity. Delirium may also occur in a mixed type in which one can fluctuate between both hyper and hypoactive periods.
Delirium is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, it can also occur as a result of an extremely wide range of health problems such as urinary tract infections, influenza, and alzheimer’s.
A delusion is a spontaneously occurring false belief held with strong conviction regardless of evidence to the contrary, rational argument, or how much the belief seemingly contradicts the individual's prior understanding of the world.
Within the context of hallucinogen usage, delusions can usually be broken out of when overwhelming evidence is provided to the contrary or when the person has sobered up enough to logically analyse the situation. It is exceedingly rare for hallucinogen induced delusions to persist into sobriety.
It is also worth noting that delusions can often spread among individuals in group settings. For example, if one person makes a verbal statement regarding a delusional belief they are currently holding while in the presence of other similarly intoxicated people, they may also begin to hold the same delusion. This can result in shared hallucinations and a general reinforcement of the level of conviction in which they are each holding the delusional belief.
Delusions are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation. They are most likely to occur during states of memory suppression and share common themes and elements with clinical schizophrenia.
Feelings of impending doom
Feelings of impending doom can be described as sudden sensations of overwhelming fear and urgency based upon the unfounded belief that a negative event is about to occur in the immediate future. These expected negative events typically include some kind of medical emergency, a person's death, or the world coming to an end. This effect can be the result of real evidence but is usually based on an unfounded delusion or negative hallucinations. The intensity of these feelings can range from subtle to overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and a strong sense of urgency.
Feelings of impending doom are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and unspeakable horrors. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.
Glossolalia is an effect in which a person finds themselves involuntarily speaking and/or thinking in nonsensical speech which is structured in a manner that resembles an actual language. This is often defined by linguists as a melodic and fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning. It is important to note that this effect is distinctly different from the thought disorganization characterized by a schizophrenic's word salad.
Glossolalia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as language suppression, catharsis, spirituality enhancement, and delirium. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives.
Paranoia is the suspiciousness or the belief that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and feelings of impending doom. Paranoia also frequently leads to excessively secretive and overcautious behaviour which stems from the perceived ideation of one or more scenarios, some of which commonly include: fear of surveillance, imprisonment, conspiracies, plots against an individual, betrayal, and being caught. This effect can be the result of real evidence but is often based on assumption and false pretence.
Paranoia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.
Psychosis is as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality." The features of psychoticism are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and formal thought disorders exhibiting a wide range of culturally incongruent, odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviours and cognitions, including both process (e.g., perception, dissociation) and content (e.g., beliefs). Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities.
Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. Generally speaking, however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy.
Thought disorganization is a state in which one's ability to analyze and categorize conceptual information using a systematic and logical thought process is considerably decreased. It seemingly occurs through an increase in thoughts that are unrelated or irrelevant to the topic at hand, thus decreasing one's capacity for a structured and cohesive thought stream. This effect also seems to allow the user to hold a significantly lower amount of relevant information in their train of thought that can be useful for extended mental calculations, articulating ideas, and analyzing logical arguments.
Thought disorganization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis suppression and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic and depressant compounds, such as deliriants, dissociatives, psychedelics, cannabinoids, and GABAergics. However, it is worth noting that the same stimulant or nootropics compounds that induce thought organization at lower dosages, can also often result in the opposite effect of thought disorganization at their higher dosages.
Physical effects are any subjective experience which directly affects an aspect of a person's physical body.
Perception of bodily heaviness
Perception of bodily heaviness can be described as feeling as if one's body has significantly increased in its weight. This can result in feelings of slowness and sluggishness due to the body seeming difficult, uncomfortable, or impossible to move.
Perception of bodily heaviness is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and muscle relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of depressant compounds, such as GABAergics, opioids, and antipsychotics. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain sedating psychedelics such as certain LSA, psilocybin, and 2C-C.
Sedation can be described as a decrease in a person's physical energy levels which are interpreted as discouraging when it comes to wakefulness, movement, performing tasks, talkativeness, and general exercise. At lower levels, sedation typically results in feelings of general relaxation and a loss of energy. At higher levels, however, sedation typically results in the person passing out into temporary unconsciousness.
Sedation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, thought deceleration, and sleepiness in a manner which further intensifies the person's feelings of relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of depressant compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, and antipsychotics. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as antihistamines, deliriants, cannabinoids and certain psychedelics.
Uncomfortable Physical Effects
An uncomfortable physical effect is any substance-induced alteration of a person's physical state which is unpleasant, undesirable, painful, or otherwise a source of distress. In most cases they indicate a temporary part of a substance's interaction with the body. However, in certain contexts, they can also indicate the need for attention or even medical treatment if they become dangerously severe.
An abnormal heartbeat (also called an arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular. During this state, the heartbeat may be too fast (over 100 beats per minute) or too slow (less than 60 beats per minute) and may be regular or irregular. A heartbeat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heartbeat that is too slow is called bradycardia. Although many arrhythmias are not life-threatening, it is worth noting that some can cause cardiac arrest in extreme cases.
An abnormal heartbeat is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and depressant compounds, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and GABAergics. While stimulants tend to increase a person's heart rate, depressants tend to decrease it. Combining the two can often result in dangerously irregular heartbeats. However, this effect can also occur under the influence of deliriants.
Difficulty urinating (also known as urinary retention) can be described as the experience of a decreased ability to pass urine. This can be due to painful burning sensations within the urethra or a due to a loss of bladder control which prevents or inhibits one from urinating even with a full bladder.
Difficulty urinating is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and constipation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulant and opioid compounds, such as heroin, fentanyl, kratom, amphetamine, MDMA, and 4-FA. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulating psychedelics and deliriants.
Dry mouth (formally known as xerostomia) can be described as having a dry-feeling mouth often accompanied by a difficulty swallowing. It is usually a direct result of dehydration but can be felt to occur regardless of the actual dryness of a person's mouth. At extreme levels, this effect can become so strong that it becomes extremely difficult and uncomfortable to swallow.
Dry mouth is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as frequent urination (due to drinking excessive amounts of water) and dehydration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as stimulants, psychedelics, opioids, antispychotics, deliriants, SSRI's, and cannabinoids.
Frequent urination, or urinary frequency, can be defined as the need to urinate more often than usual. It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence and large total volumes of urine. However, in other cases, urinary frequency involves only normal volumes of urine overall.
Frequent urination is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as dehydration and dry mouth in a manner which further amplifies the needs to urinate through excessive consumption of water. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as stimulants, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.
Increased bodily temperature
Increased bodily temperature or pyrexia can be described as having a body temperature which is above the normal baseline. While there is no universally agreed upon value at which pyrexia occurs, its diagnoses ranges between 37.5 - 38.3°C (99.5 - 100.9°F). For comparison, the average temperature of a healthy person is around 37°C (98.6°F). It is worth noting that a bodily temperature which exceeds 41.5°C (106.7°F) is an emergency which requires immediate medical attention and can potentially result in physical injury, long-term side effects, and death.
Increased bodily temperature is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as increased perspiration, dehydration, headaches, and serotonin syndrome. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulant compounds which affect serotonin and 5-HT receptors, dopamine and D receptors and norepinephrine. These substances include amphetamine, methylphenidate, MDMA, and cocaine. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain stimulating psychedelics such as AMT, 2C-P, and DOC.
A muscle cramp can be described as an involuntary temporary contraction or over shortening of muscles which may cause severe aches and pains. The onset of these muscle cramps is usually sudden while the cramp typically resolves itself spontaneously within a few seconds or minutes.
Muscle cramps are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle twitching and stimulation. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulating psychedelics compounds, such as LSD, 2C-E, DOC, and AMT. However, they can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain GABAergic depressants such as GHB and phenibut.
Nausea can be described as a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach combined with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, precedes vomiting. This effect usually occurs at the onset of the experience and dissipates as the peak takes its toll.
In the context of substance usage, nausea and vomiting can occur as a result of stomach irritation through the consumption of materials which it is not used to digesting. These materials can include things such as chemical powders or plant matter. Alternatively, nausea may occur as a direct pharmacological result of how the particular substance affects the brain. If this is the case, the nausea is therefore inseparable from the experience itself and will likely occur to varying extents regardless of the route of administration.
Nausea is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stomach bloating, stomach cramps, and dizziness. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as psychedelics, opioids, GABAergics, deliriants, dissociatives, and stimulants.
Physical fatigue can be described as a general feeling of bodily exhaustion. The intensity and duration of this effect typically depends on the substance consumed and its dosage. It can also be further exacerbated by various factors such as a lack of sleep or food. These feelings of exhaustion involve a wide variety of symptoms which generally include some or all of the following effects: sedation, perception of bodily heaviness, decreased libido, motor control loss, and sleepiness.
People who are fatigued may find it difficult to complete physical actions and may not be capable of getting out of bed or performing everyday household tasks. It can generally be treated with a period of rest or sleep.
Physical fatigue is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as cognitive fatigue. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriants and antipsychotic compounds, such as quetiapine, haloperidol, and risperidone. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of many depressants, and during the offset of many stimulants.
Restless legs (also known as restless legs syndrome or RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs but can also affect the arms, torso, and head. During this state, moving the affected body part reduces the uncomfortable sensations, providing temporary relief.
RLS sensations can range from pain, an aching in the muscles, "an itch you can't scratch", an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a crawling feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep.
Restless legs syndrome is most commonly induced during the withdrawal symptoms of many depressants, such as opioids or benzodiazepines, and during the offset of many stimulants, such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants such as DPH and datura.