Autonomous voice communication
A sensed presence of the other
At the lowest level, there is a distinctive feeling that another form of consciousness is internally present alongside that of one’s usual sense of self. This sensation is often referred to within the scientific literature as a “sense of presence”.
Mutually generated internal responses
Internally felt conversational responses to one’s own thoughts and feelings which feel as if they are partially generated by one’s own thought stream and in equal measure by that of a separate thought stream.
Separately generated internal responses
Internally felt conversational responses to one’s own thoughts and feelings which feel as if they are generated by an entirely distinct and separate thought stream that resides within one’s head.
Separately generated audible internal responses
Internally heard conversational responses to one’s own thoughts and feelings which are perceived as a clearly defined and audible voice within one’s head. These can take on a variety of voices, accents, and dialects, but usually sound identical to one’s own spoken voice.
Separately generated audible external responses
Externally heard conversational responses to one’s own thoughts and feelings which are perceived as a clearly defined and audible voice which sounds as if it is coming from outside one’s own head. These can take on a variety of voices, accents, and dialects, but usually sound identical to the person’s own spoken voice.
-  Toh, W. L., Castle, D. J., Thomas, N., Badcock, J. C., & Rossell, S. L. (2016). Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and related psychotic phenomena in mood disorders: analysis of the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) data. Psychiatry research, 243, 238-245. | https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.psychres.2016.06.035
- Romme, M. A. J., Honig, A., Noorthoorn, E. O., & Escher, A. D. M. A. C. (1992). Coping with hearing voices: An emancipatory approach. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161(1), 99-103. | https://doi.org/10.1192%2Fbjp.161.1.99
- Fénelon, G., Soulas, T., De Langavant, L. C., Trinkler, I., & Bachoud-Lévi, A. C. (2011). Feeling of presence in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, jnnp-2010. | https://doi.org/10.1136%2Fjnnp.2010.234799
- Hayes, J., & Leudar, I. (2016). Experiences of continued presence: on the practical consequences of ‘hallucinations’ in bereavement. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 89(2), 194-210. | https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fpapt.12067
- SherMer, M. (2010). The Sensed-Presence Effect. Scientific American, 302(4), 34. | https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-sensed-presence-effect/
-  Looijestijn, J., Diederen, K. M., Goekoop, R., Sommer, I. E., Daalman, K., Kahn, R. S., ... & Blom, J. D. (2013). The auditory dorsal stream plays a crucial role in projecting hallucinated voices into external space. Schizophrenia research, 146(1-3), 314-319. | https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.schres.2013.02.004
- Beach, H. J. (1997). Listening for the logos: A study of reports of audible voices at high doses of psilocybin. | http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v07n1/07112bea.html
- Robertson, M., & Toh, W. L. (2017). M109. Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs) in a Nonclinical Adult Population and Their Relationship With Mood. Schizophrenia bulletin, 43(suppl_1), S250-S250. | https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fschbul%2Fsbx022.104
- Luhrmann, T. M., Padmavati, R., Tharoor, H., & Osei, A. (2015). Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: interview-based study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(1), 41-44. | https://doi.org/10.1192%2Fbjp.bp.113.139048