Confusion is an impairment of abstract thinking demonstrated by an inability to think with one’s customary clarity and coherence. [1] Within the context of substance use, it is commonly experienced as a persistent inability to grasp or comprehend concepts and situations which would otherwise be perfectly understandable during sobriety. The intensity of this effect seems to to be further increased with unfamiliarity [2] in either setting or substance ingested.

Confusion is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, delusions, and short-term memory suppression in a manner which further increases the person's lack of comprehension. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics [3] , dissociatives [4] , synthetic cannabinoids [5] , and deliriants [6] [7] . However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of benzodiazepines [8] and antipsychotics [7] .


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  2. Sheehan, P. W., & Lewis, S. E. (1974). Subjects' reports of confusion in consciousness and the arousal of imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38(3), 731-734. |
  3. Krebs, T. S., & Johansen, P. Ø. (2013). Psychedelics and mental health: a population study. PloS one, 8(8), e63972. |
  4. Mozayani, A. (2003). Phencyclidine-Effects on Human Performance and Behavior. Forensic science review, 15(1), 61-74. |
  5. Chase, P. B., Hawkins, J., Mosier, J., Jimenez, E., Boesen, K., Logan, B. K., & Walter, F. G. (2016). Differential physiological and behavioral cues observed in individuals smoking botanical marijuana versus synthetic cannabinoid drugs. Clinical Toxicology, 54(1), 14-19. |
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    Kalisch Ellett, L. M., Pratt, N. L., Ramsay, E. N., Barratt, J. D., & Roughead, E. E. (2014). Multiple anticholinergic medication use and risk of hospital admission for confusion or dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(10), 1916-1922. |
  7. Nicholson, K. L., & Balster, R. L. (2001). GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse. Drug and alcohol dependence, 63(1), 1-22. |




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