This diagram demonstrates comparative differences within vein structure during states of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and normality.

Vasoconstriction can be described as a narrowing of the veins and blood vessels which results from a contraction of their muscular wall. It is particularly prevalent in the large arteries and small arterioles.

This effect typically results in feelings of tightness, achiness, and numbness within a person's arms and legs. It can range from mild in its effects to extremely uncomfortable.

Vasoconstriction is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulating psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, 2C-E, and DOC. However, it can also occur under the influence of traditional stimulants such as methamphetamine, caffeine, and MDMA.




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