Perspective hallucination

Out of body experience by Unknown
This image serves as an example of a 3rd person perspective hallucination.

A perspective hallucination is an alteration of the perspective through which a given internal or external hallucination is seen. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

This effect is capable of manifesting itself across the four different perspectives described below: [6] [7]

  • 1st person - The most common form of perspective can be described as the normal experience of perceiving a hallucination from the person's everyday self and body.
  • 2nd person - This perspective can be described as the experience of perceiving a hallucination from the viewpoint of an external source of consciousness, such as another person, an animal, or an inanimate object.
  • 3rd person- This perspective can be described as an out-of-body experience where a person's viewpoint is floating above, below, behind, or in front of their physical body.
  • 4th person - The least common form of perspective can be described as the experience of perceiving a hallucination from multiple or even seemingly infinite viewpoints and angles simultaneously.

Perspective hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects, such as delirium, and memory suppression. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.


  1. Dillon, P., Copeland, J., & Jansen, K. (2003). Patterns of use and harms associated with non-medical ketamine use. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 69(1), 23-28. |
  2. Obreshkova, D., Kandilarov, I., Angelova, V. T., Iliev, Y., Atanasov, P., & Fotev, P. S. (2017). Pharmaco-toxicological aspects and analysis of phenylalkylamine and indolylalkylamine hallucinogens. Pharmacia, 64(1), 32-47. (2) |
  3. Jansen, K. L. R. (1990). Neuroscience and the near-death experience: roles for the NMSA-PCP receptor, the sigma receptor and the endopsychosins. Medical Hypotheses, 31(1), 25-29. |
  4. Rumpf K, Pedeck J, Teuteberg H. Munchhoff W. Nolte H. Dream-like experiences during brief anaesthesia with ketamine. thiopental and propanidid. p 161 in Ketamine (H Kreuscher. ed.) Springer-Verlag. Berlin, 1969. |
  5. Siegel R K. Phencyclidine and ketamine intoxication: a study of recreational users. p 119 in Phencyclidine Abuse: An Appraisal (R C Peterson. R C Stillman. eds.). National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 21. NIDA. Rockville. Maryland, 1978. |
  6. Wilkins, L. K., Girard, T. A., & Cheyne, J. A. (2011). Ketamine as a primary predictor of out-of-body experiences associated with multiple substance use. Consciousness and cognition, 20(3), 943-950. |
  7. Przyby, A. (n.d.). A Philosophical Journey into the Heart of the Psychedelic Dream. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. Retrieved February 24, 2018, from |


hallucinatory state


The following people contributed to the content of this article: