Subjective Effects of Deliriants

700mg Diphenhydramine by Stas Constantine -

This article breaks down the subjective effects of the deliriant experience into simple and easy to understand descriptions with accompanying image replications. This is done without resorting to metaphor, analogy, or personal trip reports.

These descriptions are not specific to any particular substance but are applicable to the effects which commonly occur in various forms under the influence of almost any deliriant compound. This includes, but is not limited to, both synthetic and plant based deliriants, such as:

diphenhydramine (DPH), datura, atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, doxylamine, benzydamine, elemicin, brugmansia, atropa belladonna, hyoscyamus niger, mandragora officinarum

Individual effects are also summarized with a prominent link to their full article.


Visual Effects

Visual effects are any subjective experience which directly alters a person's sense of sight.

Autonomous entity

Full article: Autonomous entity
HatMan by Sverrirorz - This replication serves as an image example of a deliriant autonomous entity.
An autonomous entity is the experience of perceived contact with beings which appear to be sentient and autonomous in their behaviour. They will frequently act as the inhabitants of a perceived independent reality. Although many entities seem largely unaware of a person’s presence they are often precognizant of a person's appearance into their realm and usually choose to interact with them in various ways. The behaviour of a typical entity can vary wildly and seems to depend heavily on one's current emotional state. For example, while many entities will act as loving beings, teachers, or healers in certain contexts they are equally capable of acting as indifferent, uncaring or even as malicious tormentors. Entities under the influence of psychedelics usually appear as if they are comprised of condensed psychedelic geometry. They can take any form but subconscious archetypes are present and commonly include: Humans, shadow people, bodiless super intelligent humanoids, aliens, elves, animals, giant spheres, insectoids, beings of light, anthropomorphic beings, plants, conscious inanimate objects, fictional characters, cartoons, robotic machines, gods, demigods, goddesses, bio-mechanical intelligences, hooded figures, demons, indescribable monstrosities, spirits, angels, shamans, ghosts, souls, ancestors, fantastical or mythological beasts, glitch creatures and more. It is worth noting that the content, style, and general behaviour of an autonomous entity is often largely dependent on the emotional state of the person experiencing it. For example, a person who is emotionally stable and generally happy will usually be more prone to experiencing loving, kind, and healing entities. In contrast, however, a person who is emotionally unstable and generally unhappy will usually be more prone to experiencing hateful, sinister, and mocking entities. This experience is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as geometry, internal hallucinations and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Brightness alteration

Brightness alteration is a distortion or change in the levels of perceived brightness comprising a person's vision. This usually results in the person's vision becoming darker and muted, but could also potentially result in it becoming lighter and more vivid depending on the person's environment and substances they have consumed. Brightness alteration can be accompanied by the coinciding effects of pupil dilation or constriction and photophobia. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

External hallucination

Deliriants by Anonymous 420chan User -
An external hallucination is the perception of a visual hallucination which displays itself seamlessly into the external environment as if it were actually happening. This is in stark contrast to internal hallucinations, such as dreams, that occur exclusively within an imagined environment and can typically only be viewed with closed eyes. At lower levels, external hallucinations are visible within one's direct line of sight, but are not fully defined in their appearance. This means that, although visible, they do not look completely detailed and are often extremely blurry or semi-translucent with little, if any, colour. However, at higher levels, the hallucinations become completely realistic and will rarely disappear simply because a person double takes. At this point, they are now capable of a completely convincing and photorealistic appearance and their behaviour becomes far more lifelike. Additionally, they may become numerous enough to fully engulf the entirety of the person's environment. The content within these external hallucinations can be further broken down into four distinct subcomponents. These commonly include autonomous entities, object activation, scenarios and plots, and settings, and shadow people. It is worth noting that the content, style, and general behaviour of an external hallucination is often largely dependent on the emotional state of the person experiencing it. For example, a person who is emotionally stable and generally happy will usually be more prone to experiencing neutral, interesting, or positive hallucinations. In contrast, however, a person who is emotionally unstable and generally unhappy will usually be more prone to experiencing sinister, fear-inducing, and negative hallucinations. External hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, internal hallucinations and delusions. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine.

Internal hallucination

Deliriant CEV's by Stas Constantine - This image serves as an example of low level deliriant imagery which is seen behind closed eyelids.
An internal hallucination is the perception of a visual hallucination that exclusively occurs within an imagined environment which can typically only be viewed with closed eyes, similar to those found within dreams. This is in stark contrast to external hallucinations, which display themselves seamlessly into the external environment as if they were actually happening. At lower levels, internal hallucinations begin with imagery on the back of a person's eyelids which do not take up the entirety of one's visual field and are distinct from their background. These can be described as spontaneous moving or still images of scenes, concepts, places, and anything one could imagine. The imagery is manifested in varying levels of realism, ranging from ill-defined and cartoon-like in nature to wholly realistic. They rarely hold their form for more than a few seconds before fading or shifting into another image. It is worth noting that this level of intensity occurs in a highly similar manner to that of hypnagogia, the state between sleep and wakefulness. At higher levels, internal hallucinations become increasingly elaborate as they eventually become all-encompassing, fully-fledged 3D scenes which surround the person in a similar manner to that of dreams. This can create the feeling that one has "broken-through" into another reality. The things which occur within this perceived alternate reality can be anything but fall under common archetypes, such as contact with autonomous entities alongside a wide variety of imagined landscapes, memory replays, and scenarios. Internal hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as geometry, external hallucinations and delusions. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Object activation

Full article: Object activation
Object activation is the experience of looking at an object and perceiving it to move, become alive, or become fully animated and autonomous of its own accord. For example, a door may open and close on its own or a cup on the table may start to slide or tilt over. The "activated object" usually moves in a familiar way that would happen in day to day life, implying that the person is experiencing a combination of both object alterations and external hallucinations being applied to their environment. However, it is worth noting that certain activated objects may also perform actions which are completely unrealistic. For example, an item of furniture may appear to disassemble into many floating complex rotating sections before reassembling into its previous form. Stationary objects, such as rugs, may activate themselves and begin crawling on the floor and up onto other stationary pieces of furniture. These hallucinations usually only occur when one looks directly at an object for an extended period of time and are rare and extreme signs of an advanced hallucinatory state. Object activation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, psychosis, cognitive dysphoria, and delusions in a manner which can result in the hallucinations being perceived to have distinctly sinister and unsettling undertones. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of psychedelics, dissociatives, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation.

Object alteration

Full article: Object alteration
An object alteration is the experience of perceiving objects, and scenes to be progressively warping, moving, stretching, animating, and shifting in their 3-dimensional form in a manner which can vary from subtle to extreme. When the person double takes the object returns to its original shape until it is looked at directly once again, whereafter it begins distorting again in a similar or different manner. The manner in which the alterations occur is not uniform and cannot be reliably predicted. The intensity of the effect is often linked to the intensity and progression of the mental state that precludes this effect. For example, when staring at an object such as a chair its 3-dimensional shape may begin to drastically elongate or tilt into an exaggerated form which retains its original colours and textures. Another common manifestation of this effect is the perception of textures progressively extending and stretching outward from the surfaces which they reside upon in the form of a detailed 3-dimensional structure somewhat similar to complex, opaque, and solidified smoke. These structures usually maintain a size which is consistent with the width of the texture it is extending from. They can also range from anywhere between several inches to several meters in length. For example, if one is staring at a painting on the wall it may extend in one direction on a 2-dimensional plane until the observer looks away. Object alterations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium and psychosis. [6] They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH and datura. However, they can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.

Peripheral information misinterpretation

Peripheral information misinterpretation is a fleeting experience of an object or detail within one's peripheral vision being interpreted and displayed incorrectly. During this state, a person may briefly see elaborate details within their peripheral vision but that after a more direct analysis, turn out to be entirely fabricated. For example, a person may momentarily notice fleeting objects, people, or events within their peripheral vision that are not actually present. Once the detail or object is realized to be incorrect, the misinterpretation is overwritten with the correct perception. Usually, as soon as a person consciously notices the misinterpreted visual detail, it has resolved itself into the correct visual interpretation. Peripheral information misinterpretation is often accompanied and enhanced by other coinciding effects such as pattern recognition enhancement and external hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.

Settings, sceneries, and landscapes

Settings, sceneries, and landscapes are the perceived environment in which the plot of an internal or external hallucination occurs. This effect is capable of manifesting in a seemingly infinite variety of potential places and settings. When explored, the geography of these settings is capable of organizing itself as static and coherent. However, it will usually manifest as a non-linear, nonsensical, and continuously changing layout which does not obey the laws of physics. Regarding the chosen locations, appearance, and style of these settings, they seem to be selected at random and are often entirely new and previously unseen locations. They do, however, put heavy emphasis on replicating and combining real-life locations stored within the person's memories, especially those which are prominent in one's life and daily routine. There are some common themes and archetypes within this component which generally include: Jungles, rainforests, deserts, ice-scapes, cities, natural environments, caves, space habitats, vast structures, civilizations, technological utopias, ancient ruins, machinescapes, historical settings, rooms and other indoor environments, real-life locations, incomprehensible geometric landscapes and more. Settings, sceneries, and landscapes are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as autonomous entities and delusions. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Shadow people

Full article: Shadow people
Shadow group by Anonymous -
Shadow people are the experience of perceiving patches of shadow in one's peripheral or direct line of sight that appear and behave as living, autonomous beings. Due to the unique behaviour of these hallucinations they can be considered as a distinct sub-type of autonomous entity. Shadow people usually, but not always, begin to appear initially as fleeting images in a person's peripheral vision. However, at higher levels of intensity shadow people may begin to appear in full view in a manner which allows them to be directly looked at. At advanced mental states, it is even possible to look away from and look back at the shadow person without a change in the presence or appearance of the hallucination. The bodies of these shadow people are usually perceived as being comprised of a type of blackness that has a sense of depth with few facial or bodily features. The blackness of their bodies often seem almost opaque, as if one is looking into a "black hole" in humanoid form. They may also appear in the shape of animals, uniform blobs, disembodied body parts, or a myriad of other indescribable shapes. They sometimes appear to have faces, eyes, or mouths and are able to move or change shape. The movement exhibited can be normal human movement or it can be faster, slower, or more choppy than a normal person's gait. It is also possible for multiple shadow people to occupy one's field of vision simultaneously while acting autonomously from one another and even interacting with each other. Shadow people are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, paranoia, anxiety, and feelings of impending doom. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur under the influence of stimulant psychosis, sleep deprivation, and during sleep paralysis.

Unspeakable horrors

Full article: Unspeakable horrors
National Park by H. R. Giger -
Unspeakable horrors are the experience of prolonged exposure to indescribable scenarios and hallucinatory content of a scary and disturbing nature which are often directly influenced by a person's fears. This can occur during high dose hallucinogenic experiences, particularly those in which the user is currently undergoing negative emotional stressors and personal problems of an introspective nature. Although the content which comprises these states are generally ineffable and largely dependent upon the fears of those who experience them, certain themes and archetypes often manifest themselves. These are not limited to but may consist of:
  • Autonomous entities of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature - This can include demons, deformed monstrosities, hooded figures, mocking entities and otherwise normal human beings deformed by severe injury or illness.
  • Scenarios and plots of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature - This can include scenes of suffering directed towards oneself or other people such as being tortured, scenes in which one is being hunted as prey by “evil” creatures or forces and the direct experience of personal fears.
  • Settings, sceneries, and landscapes of an intrinsically sinister and threatening nature - This can include the visitation of hellish landscapes, ancient monolithic Lovecraftian architecture, and ruined civilizations.
  • Fearing for the fabric of one’s sanity - This can be described as feeling that one’s current perception is so horrific that they will surely be left permanently insane with severe psychological damage. The effect can leave people with an immediate sense that ordinary life is a thin shell over a comparatively horrifying reality which cannot be dismissed or escaped from. It is worth noting, however, that although stressful, this effect rarely actually leaves individuals with lasting psychological problems.
Unspeakable horrors are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety, psychosis, and memory suppression. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and 2C-P. They can also occur under the influence of deliriants such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine.

Visual haze

Full article: Visual haze
Visual haze distorts the surrounding environment to make it appear as if the air is shrouded in an imaginary cloud of smoke, fog, or haze. This effect varies in its intensity, ranging from subtle and barely visible to extreme and all-encompassing in a manner which can significantly impair a person's vision. Visual haze is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity suppression and external hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, deliriants, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur less commonly under the influence of stimulant psychosis and sleep deprivation.

Auditory Effects

Auditory effects are any subjective effect which directly alters a person's sense of hearing.

Auditory distortion

Full article: Auditory distortion
An auditory distortion is the experience of perceived alterations in how audible noises present and structure themselves. These distortions can manifest in many styles, but commonly take the form of echoes or murmurs which rise in the wake of each sound and are accompanied by fluctuating changes in speed and pitch. This can intensify up to the point where sounds are consistently followed by continuous reverberation, often rendering the original sound completely unrecognizable. However, it often quickly resets to base level and starts over if the source of noise is stopped or changed. At lower levels, auditory distortions consist of subtle and spontaneous reverberation, echo effects, and changes in pitch of noises within the external environment. They are fleeting, low in intensity, and easy to ignore. However, at higher levels, auditory distortions become constant intense enough that they are impossible to ignore. The complexity of these resulting alterations can quickly render the original sound as unintelligible. Auditory distortions are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory hallucinations, auditory suppression, and auditory enhancement. They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, 5-MeO-DiPT, and DMT. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of dissociatives such as ketamine, PCP, and nitrous.
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Auditory hallucination

An auditory hallucination is an experience of hearing spontaneous imaginary noises. The most common examples of this include hearing clips of sound such as imagined music, voices, tones, popping, and scraping, but can also be an infinite variety of other potential noises that are stored within one's memory. In terms of their behavior, these sounds will often be based on noises which were expected to occur or have been genuinely heard on a frequent basis within the external environment. For example, a person may repeatedly hear a knock at the door when they are expecting a visitor or may hear music which they were listening to earlier on in the day. However, at other times, auditory hallucinations may also present themselves as consisting of completely novel and alien sounds that are unlike anything which could currently occur within the external environment. Auditory hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory distortion and auditory enhancement. They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives.
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Auditory suppression

Auditory suppression is the experience of sound becoming perceived as more distant, quiet, and muffled than they actually are. This effect can significantly decrease both the volume of a noise, as well as its perceived quality. It is usually described as making it difficult to comprehend or fully pay attention to music and other sounds. Auditory suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory distortions and auditory hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur less commonly under the influence of GABAergic depressants and antipsychotics such as alcohol and quetiapine.
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Tactile Effects

Tactile effects are any subjective effect which directly alters a person's sense of touch.

Tactile hallucination

A tactile hallucination is the experience of perceiving a convincing physical sensation which is not actually occurring. Common examples of this can include people or insects touching the body in various places and in a wide variety of ways. Alternatively, these hallucinations can be felt as complex and structured arrangements of vibration across the skin. This effect may be also accompanied by visual hallucinations of a plausible cause of the sensation. For example, during internal and external hallucinations one may be able to touch and feel imagined objects or autonmous entities just as convincingly as within normal everyday dreams. The sensations that are possible within these hallucinations are near limitless and can even include pain or sexual pleasure. Tactile hallucinations are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriants compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of psychedelics, stimulant psychosis, and extreme sleep deprivation.

Multisensory Effects

Multisensory effects are any subjective effect which directly alters two or more senses simultaneously.

Although some hallucinatory effects may affect multiple senses at one time they are usually not categorized as 'multisensory effects' unless they do so consistently. For example, while experiences with autonomous entities may sometimes have a tactile component to them, more often than not they are primarily a visual experience and are therefore classified as such.

Memory replays

Full article: Memory replays
Memory replays are a multisensory sub-type of internal hallucination which results in a person reliving memories through the experience of vivid daydreams, reoccurring emotions or sensations, and hallucinations. At higher levels of intensity, these are often referred to as "flashbacks". The memories themselves can be anything from significant life events with high levels of personal meaning attributed to them, generic recent occurrences, or long forgotten experiences from childhood. Memory replays are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as scenarios and plots, internal hallucinations, and introspection. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, they can also commonly occur during sobriety as a result of traumatic experiences, particularly when the person suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder.

Scenarios and plots

Full article: Scenarios and plots
Scenarios and plots are the situations, stories, scenarios, and events which occur within both external and internal hallucinations. These behave in an almost identical fashion to the plots and scenarios that occur during ordinary dream states and often include cognitive delusions that result in one accepting the plot as a real-life event. On rare occasions, however, they will be immediately recognized as a mere hallucination and not a real-life event. During this effect, the typical components which comprise standard hallucinatory states (settings, sceneries, and landscapes and autonomous entities) begin behaving and co-operating in a manner which results in the experience of events occurring within the hallucination itself. These are often perceived as linear and coherent plots that occur in a logical sequence by leading into other events through normal cause and effect. However, they are equally likely to present themselves as completely nonsensical and incoherent. For example, they may consist of nonlinear or spontaneous events which are capable of ending, starting, and changing between each other repeatedly in quick succession. Scenarios and plots are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation.

Cognitive Effects

Cognitive effects are any subjective experience which directly alter or introduce new content to an element of a person's cognition.

Amnesia

Full article: Amnesia
Amnesia is a global impairment in the ability to acquire new memories regardless of sensory modality, and a loss of some memories, especially recent ones, from the period before amnesia began. During states of amnesia a person will usually retain functional perceptual abilities and short-term memory which can still be used to recall events that recently occurred; this effect is distinct from the memory impairment produced by sedation. As such, a person experiencing amnesia may not obviously appear to be doing so, as they can often carry on normal conversations and perform complex tasks. Amnesia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as disinhibition, sedation, and memory suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of GABAergic depressants, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines [7] , GHB, and zolpidem. However, it can also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of extremely heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, Salvia divinorum, and deliriants.

Anxiety

Full article: Anxiety
Anxiety is the experience of negative feelings of apprehension, worry, and general unease. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks or feelings of impending doom. Anxiety is often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and muscular tension. Psychoactive substance-induced anxiety can be caused as an inescapable effect of the drug itself, by a lack of experience with the substance or its intensity, as an enhancement of a pre-existing state of mind, or by the experience of negative hallucinations. Anxiety is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as depression and irritability. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.

Autonomous voice communication

Autonomous voice communication can be described as the experience of being able to hear and converse with a disembodied and audible voice of unknown origin which seemingly resides within one's own head. This voice is often capable of high levels of complex and detailed speech which are typically on par with the intelligence and vocabulary of ones own conversational abilities. At higher levels, the conversational style of that which is discussed between both the voice and its host can be described as essentially identical in terms of its coherency and linguistic intelligibility as that of any other everyday interaction between the self and another human being with which one might engage in conversation with. However, there are some subtle but identifiable differences between this experience and that of normal everyday conversations. These stem from the fact that one's specific set of knowledge, memories and experiences are identical to that of the voice which is being communicated with. This results in conversations in which both participants often share an identical vocabulary down to the very use of their colloquial slang and subtle mannerisms. As a result of this, no matter how in-depth and detailed the discussion becomes, no entirely new information is ever exchanged between the two communicators. Instead, the discussion focuses primarily on building upon old ideas and discussing new opinions or perspectives regarding the previously established content of one's life. Autonomous voice communication is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delusions, autonomous entities, auditory hallucinations, and psychosis in a manner which can sometimes lead the person into believing the voices statements unquestionably in a delusional manner. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Cognitive dysphoria

Full article: Cognitive dysphoria
Cognitive dysphoria (semantically the opposite of euphoria) is medically recognized as a cognitive and emotional state in which a person experiences intense feelings of discomfort and unhappiness. These feelings can vary in their intensity depending on the dosage consumed and the user's susceptibility to mental instability. Although dysphoria is an effect, the term is also used colloquially to define an intense state of general melancholic unhappiness combined with an overwhelming sense of discomfort and malaise. Cognitive dysphoria is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and depression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH and datura. However, it can also occur during a stimulant offset and during the withdrawal symptoms of almost any substance.

Delirium

Full article: Delirium
Delirium (also known as acute confusion) is a physiological disturbance of awareness that is accompanied by a change in baseline cognition which cannot be better explained by a preexisting or evolving neurocognitive disorder. The disturbance in awareness is manifested by a reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain, and shift attention and the accompanying cognitive change in at least one other area may include memory and learning (particularly recent memory), disorientation (particularly to time and place), alteration in language, or perceptual distortions or a perceptual-motor disturbance. The perceptual disturbances accompanying delirium include misinterpretations, illusions, or hallucinations; these disturbances are typically visual but may occur in other modalities as well, and range from simple and uniform to highly complex. An individual with delirium may also exhibit emotional disturbances, such as anxiety, fear, depression, irritability, anger, euphoria, and apathy with rapid and unpredictable shifts from one emotional state to another. Delirium may present itself in three distinct forms. These are referred to in the scientific literature as hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed forms. In its hyperactive form, it is manifested as severe confusion and disorientation, with a sudden onset and a fluctuating intensity. In its hypoactive (i.e. underactive) form, it is manifested by an equally sudden withdrawal from interaction with the outside world accompanied by symptoms such as drowsiness and general inactivity. Delirium may also occur in a mixed type in which one can fluctuate between both hyper and hypoactive periods. Delirium is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, it can also occur as a result of an extremely wide range of health problems such as urinary tract infections, influenza, and alzheimer’s.

Delusion

Full article: Delusion
A delusion is a spontaneously occurring false belief held with strong conviction regardless of evidence to the contrary, rational argument, or how much the belief seemingly contradicts the individual's prior understanding of the world. Within the context of hallucinogen usage, delusions can usually be broken out of when overwhelming evidence is provided to the contrary or when the person has sobered up enough to logically analyse the situation. It is exceedingly rare for hallucinogen induced delusions to persist into sobriety. It is also worth noting that delusions can often spread among individuals in group settings. For example, if one person makes a verbal statement regarding a delusional belief they are currently holding while in the presence of other similarly intoxicated people, these other people may also begin to hold the same delusion. This can result in shared hallucinations and a general reinforcement of the level of conviction in which they are each holding the delusional belief. Delusions are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation. They are most likely to occur during states of memory suppression and share common themes and elements with clinical schizophrenia.

Feelings of impending doom

Feelings of impending doom can be described as sudden sensations of overwhelming fear and urgency based upon the unfounded belief that a negative event is about to occur in the immediate future. These expected negative events typically include some kind of medical emergency, a person's death, or the world coming to an end. This effect can be the result of real evidence but is usually based on an unfounded delusion or negative hallucinations. The intensity of these feelings can range from subtle to overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and a strong sense of urgency. Feelings of impending doom are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and unspeakable horrors. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Glossolalia

Full article: Glossolalia
Glossolalia can be described as an effect in which a person finds themselves speaking and/or thinking in nonsensical speech which is structured in a manner that makes it sound as if it is an actual language. This is often defined by linguists as a fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning. During the experience of this effect, the person who is speaking in glossolalia will often be completely unaware that they are speaking in anything but their native language. This can potentially result in confusion and frustration as they struggle to understand why the people around cannot comprehend what they are saying. Glossolalia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as language suppression and delirium. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives.

Paranoia

Full article: Paranoia
Paranoia is the suspiciousness or the belief that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and feelings of impending doom. Paranoia also frequently leads to excessively secretive and overcautious behaviour which stems from the perceived ideation of one or more scenarios, some of which commonly include: fear of surveillance, imprisonment, conspiracies, plots against an individual, betrayal, and being caught. This effect can be the result of real evidence but is often based on assumption and false pretence. Paranoia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.

Psychosis

Full article: Psychosis
Psychosis is as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality." The features of psychoticism are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and formal thought disorders exhibiting a wide range of culturally incongruent, odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviours and cognitions, including both process (e.g., perception, dissociation) and content (e.g., beliefs). Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities. Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. Generally speaking, however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy. Psychosis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as deliriants, psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids.

Thought disorganization

Thought disorganization is a state in which one's ability to analyze and categorize conceptual information using a systematic and logical thought process is considerably decreased. It seemingly occurs through an increase in thoughts which are unrelated or irrelevant to the topic at hand, thus decreasing one's capacity for a structured and cohesive thought stream. This effect also seems to allow the user to hold a significantly lower amount of relevant information in their train of thought which can be useful for extended mental calculations, articulating ideas, and analyzing logical arguments. Thought disorganization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis suppression and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic and depressant compounds, such as deliriants, dissociatives, psychedelics, cannabinoids, and GABAergics. However, it is worth noting that the same stimulant or nootropics compounds which induce thought organization at lower dosages, can also often result in the opposite effect of thought disorganization at their higher dosages.

Physical Effects

Physical effects are any subjective experience which directly affects an aspect of a person's physical body.

Perception of bodily heaviness

Perception of bodily heaviness can be described as feeling as if one's body has significantly increased in its weight. This can result in feelings of slowness and sluggishness due to the body seeming difficult, uncomfortable, or impossible to move. Perception of bodily heaviness is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and muscle relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of depressant compounds, such as GABAergics, opioids, and antipsychotics. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain sedating psychedelics such as certain LSA, psilocybin, and 2C-C.

Sedation

Full article: Sedation
Sedation can be described as a decrease in a person's physical energy levels which are interpreted as discouraging when it comes to wakefulness, movement, performing tasks, talkativeness, and general exercise. At lower levels, sedation typically results in feelings of general relaxation and a loss of energy. At higher levels, however, sedation typically results in the person passing out into temporary unconsciousness. Sedation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, thought deceleration, and sleepiness in a manner which further intensifies the person's feelings of relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of depressant compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, and antipsychotics. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as antihistamines, deliriants, cannabinoids and certain psychedelics.

Uncomfortable Physical Effects

An uncomfortable physical effect is any substance-induced alteration of a person's physical state which is unpleasant, undesirable, painful, or otherwise a source of distress. In most cases they indicate a temporary part of a substance's interaction with the body. However, in certain contexts, they can also indicate the need for attention or even medical treatment if they become dangerously severe.

Abnormal heartbeat

Full article: Abnormal heartbeat
An abnormal heartbeat (also called an arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular. During this state, the heartbeat may be too fast (over 100 beats per minute) or too slow (less than 60 beats per minute) and may be regular or irregular. A heartbeat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heartbeat that is too slow is called bradycardia. Although many arrhythmias are not life-threatening, it is worth noting that some can cause cardiac arrest in extreme cases. An abnormal heartbeat is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and depressant compounds, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and GABAergics. While stimulants tend to increase a person's heart rate, depressants tend to decrease it. Combining the two can often result in dangerously irregular heartbeats. However, this effect can also occur under the influence of deliriants.

Difficulty urinating

Difficulty urinating (also known as urinary retention) can be described as the experience of a decreased ability to pass urine. This can be due to painful burning sensations within the urethra or a due to a loss of bladder control which prevents or inhibits one from urinating even with a full bladder. Difficulty urinating is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and constipation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulant and opioid compounds, such as heroin, fentanyl, kratom, amphetamine, MDMA, and 4-FA. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulating psychedelics and deliriants.

Dry mouth

Full article: Dry mouth
Dry mouth (formally known as xerostomia) can be described as having a dry-feeling mouth often accompanied by a difficulty swallowing. It is usually a direct result of dehydration but can be felt to occur regardless of the actual dryness of a person's mouth. At extreme levels, this effect can become so strong that it becomes extremely difficult and uncomfortable to swallow. Dry mouth is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as frequent urination (due to drinking excessive amounts of water) and dehydration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as stimulants, psychedelics, opioids, antispychotics, deliriants, SSRI's, and cannabinoids.

Frequent urination

Full article: Frequent urination
Frequent urination, or urinary frequency, can be defined as the need to urinate more often than usual. It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence and large total volumes of urine. However, in other cases, urinary frequency involves only normal volumes of urine overall. Frequent urination is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as dehydration and dry mouth in a manner which further amplifies the needs to urinate through excessive consumption of water. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as stimulants, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Increased blood pressure

Increased blood pressure can be described as a condition in which the pressure in the systemic arteries is elevated to abnormal levels. A blood pressure of 120/80 is considered normal for an adult. A blood pressure of 90/60 or lower is considered hypotension and a blood pressure between 120/80 and 90/60 is considered prehypotension. [1] Conversely a blood pressure greater than 120/80 and less than 139/89 is considered prehypertension. [2] Increased blood pressure is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriants and vasoconstricting compounds, such as traditional stimulants and stimulating psychedelics.

Increased bodily temperature

Increased bodily temperature or pyrexia can be described as having a body temperature which is above normal baseline. [1] While there is no universally agreed upon value at which pyrexia occurs, its diagnoses ranges between 37.5 - 38.3°C (99.5 - 100.9°F). For comparison, the average temperature of a healthy person is around 37°C (98.6°F). It is worth noting that a bodily temperature which exceeds 41.5°C (106.7°F) is an emergency which requires immediate medical attention and can potentially result in physical injury, long-term side effects, and death. Increased bodily temperature is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as increased perspiration, dehydration, headaches, and serotonin syndrome. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulant compounds which affect serotonin and 5-HT receptors, dopamine and D receptors and norepinephrine. These substances include amphetamine, methylphenidate, MDMA, and cocaine. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain stimulating psychedelics such as AMT, 2C-P, and DOC.

Muscle cramp

Full article: Muscle cramp
A muscle cramp can be described as an involuntary temporary contraction or over shortening of muscles which may cause severe aches and pains. The onset of these muscle cramps is usually sudden while the cramp typically resolves itself spontaneously within a few seconds or minutes. Muscle cramps are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle twitching and stimulation. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulating psychedelics compounds, such as LSD, 2C-E, DOC, and AMT. However, they can also occur under the influence of deliriants and certain GABAergic depressants such as GHB and phenibut.

Nausea

Full article: Nausea
Nausea can be described as a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach combined with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, precedes vomiting. This effect usually occurs at the onset of the experience and dissipates as the peak takes its toll. In the context of substance usage, nausea and vomiting can occur as a result of stomach irritation through the consumption of materials which it is not used to digesting. These materials can include things such as chemical powders or plant matter. Alternatively, nausea may occur as a direct pharmacological result of how the particular substance affects the brain. If this is the case, the nausea is therefore inseparable from the experience itself and will likely occur to varying extents regardless of the route of administration. Nausea is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stomach bloating, stomach cramps, and dizziness. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as psychedelics, opioids, GABAergics, deliriants, dissociatives, and stimulants.

Vomiting

Vomiting, also known as purging, puking and throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. This effect typically occurs during the peak of a substance's effects. It can often greatly relieve the person's physical side effects once it is over. For example, under the influence of many hallucinogenic compounds, it is common for a person to feel that their trip has become significantly more enjoyable after the act of vomiting due to their uncomfortable stomach symptoms suddenly subsiding as a result.

Physical fatigue

Full article: Physical fatigue
Physical fatigue can be described as a general feeling of bodily exhaustion. The intensity and duration of this effect typically depends on the substance consumed and its dosage. It can also be further exacerbated by various factors such as a lack of sleep or food. These feelings of exhaustion involve a wide variety of symptoms which generally include some or all of the following effects: sedation, perception of bodily heaviness, decreased libido, motor control loss, and sleepiness. People who are fatigued may find it difficult to complete physical actions and may not be capable of getting out of bed or performing everyday household tasks. It can generally be treated with a period of rest or sleep. Physical fatigue is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as cognitive fatigue. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of deliriants and antipsychotic compounds, such as quetiapine, haloperidol, and risperidone. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of many depressants, and during the offset of many stimulants.

Restless legs

Full article: Restless legs
Restless legs (also known as restless legs syndrome or RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs but can also affect the arms, torso, and head. During this state, moving the affected body part reduces the uncomfortable sensations, providing temporary relief. RLS sensations can range from pain, an aching in the muscles, "an itch you can't scratch", an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a crawling feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep. Restless legs syndrome is most commonly induced during the withdrawal symptoms of many depressants, such as opioids or benzodiazepines, and during the offset of many stimulants, such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA. However, it can also occur under the influence of deliriants such as DPH and datura.

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